The Mash-Up: Beers get funky for State Fair and Summer Dabbler weekend

With over 150 breweries now pouring their beer in Minnesota, there’s always something new to try. To keep you up-to-date, we present The Mash-Up—our weekly rundown of new beers and seasonal releases in Minnesota from your favorite local and national breweries. Visit every Friday for the latest or sign up for a weekly email.

The Minnesota State Fair is back in action. Besides bringing everyone in the state to Falcon Heights, that means every beer you’ve ever imagined (and some you haven’t) are on tap for curious palates.

In addition, the 10th Summer Beer Dabbler hits CHS Field this Saturday, Urban Growler turned four this week, Bald Man turns two, Little Thistle and BeerClub have opened to the public, and much much more. Across the state, breweries are introducing new beers ranging from shandies to imperial stouts and tart ales. More Oktoberfests continue to be released, wet hop beers are brewing, and Schell’s announced this year’s unique Snowstorm winter ale.

The Growler sampled all 27 new drinks at the 2018 Minnesota State Fair // Photo by Aaron Job



Each week, The Growler’s editorial team highlights five of the most tantalizing new beers hitting taps and store shelves that we’re most excited to try.

This week, we hit the Minnesota State Fair and tasted through all 27 new specialty drinks. Check out our recap for our tasting notes and top picks.



New beers available this week (August 20 – August 26)

Dangerous Man Brewing Company's Barrel Fermented Mango Sour // Photo via Dangerous Man Brewing Company Twitter

Dangerous Man Brewing Company’s Barrel Fermented Mango Sour // Photo via Dangerous Man Brewing Company Twitter

10K Brewing

  • Belgian Ale

56 Brewing

  • Citrafication Vol. 1 – This new 7.4% ABV IPA is the first in a new series of 100 percent Citra-hopped releases coming from 56. Volume 1 features floral, pineapple, and grapefruit aromas, and juicy tropical flavors, the brewery says.


  • Margarita-Style Kettle Sour Ale – “Reminiscent of a classic margarita, this is a kettle sour brewed with lime zest and sea salt, and aged in tequila-soaked barrel staves,” the brewery says. Available exclusively at the Minnesota State Fair. 5.0% ABV, 5 IBU.

Able Seedhouse + Brewery

  • A Fair Amount of Diggity – A new imperial IPA, tapped this week.

Bad Weather Brewing Company

  • Brut IPA – “Dry-hopped with Hallertau Blanc and Huell Melon hops. Insanely dry,” the brewery says.
  • Spunomi Tsunami – Another State Fair beer, this ice cream-inspired beer is infused with strawberries and vanilla and topped with a pistachio garnish. 4.8% ABV, 10 IBU.

Bauhaus Brew Labs

  • The Shandlot Pink Lemon Shandy – A State Fair-only, summer-minded beer infused with strawberries and hibiscus. 4.5% ABV, 15 IBU.

Beaver Island Brewing Company

  • Spanish Orange Revival – New in the Soaked Series, a “coast-to-coast” IPA. 6.3% ABV, 77 IBU.
  • Uffda Ale – This State Fair offering is an easy drinking summer ale, but with a Norwegian twist by adding a fried lefse chip and lingonberries. 4.7% ABV, 21 IBU.

BeerClub Brewing

A new brewery in Mora is currently in its soft-open phrase. According to its website, the lineup will include:

  • Belgian Triple
  • Czech Pils
  • Imperial IPA
  • Oktoberfest

Bent Brewstillery

  • Raspberry Champow – A State Fair-only beer that is “super fruity, crisp, tart, and refreshing,” according to the State Fair announcement. This beer is a collaboration with 2017 Minnesota State Fair Homebrew Contest winner Mike Spores, who created the recipe for this white ale with raspberries and Champagne grapes for a wider audience. 5.0% ABV, 25 IBU.

Bent Paddle Brewing Company

  • Brut IPA – This is a collaboration with Modist, available in the taproom now.
  • Passion Fruit Pils – This State Fair exclusive consists of Bent Paddle’s Venture Pils infused with passion fruit. 5.0% ABV, 38 IBU.
  • Saison – A taproom-only offering.

BlackStack Brewing

  • Dad Jokes – A double IPA, tapped Tuesday and also available in 16-ounce cans.

Bobbing Bobber Brewing

  • Stringer of Stingers – A honey wheat ale made with lemons.

Brau Brothers Brewing Co.

  • Lemon Berry Shandy – 4% ABV, 10 IBU

Castle Danger Brewery

  • Orange Cream Ale – Available exclusively at the State Fair, Orange Cream Ale “is infused with flavors of bright citrus orange and finishes with a slightly sweet and creamy texture.” 5.0% ABV.

Dangerous Man Brewing Company

  • Barrel Fermented Mango Sour – A limited release that was fermented in Mezcal barrels with mangoes and is “super complex with a subtle hint of smoke,” the brewery says.
  • Blackberry Cobbler Ale – Tapped last week, this ale was brewed with oats, wheat, lactose, Mosaic hops, 380 pounds of blackberries, and two pounds of cinnamon. 4.9% ABV.
  • Cran Razz Sour – A creamy, juicy, and tart ale dry-hopped with Mosaic and conditioned on both cranberries and raspberries.

Eastlake Craft Brewery

  • Kirby Pucker #34 – Eastlake’s sour series will pour a State Fair exclusive in #34, made with lactobacillus, strawberries, and rhubarb. 4.0% ABV, 3 IBU.

Excelsior Brewing Company

  • Horse Apple Ale – Another State Fair-exclusive ale, brewed with pressed apple cider. 5.7% ABV, 8 IBU.


  • Caramel Corn Cream Ale – Another State Fair offering: “A generous amount of corn in the brewing process gives this beer a pleasant caramel flavor. Fermenting at a uniquely higher temperature also gives way to a harmony between the hops and light, toasty caramel malts,” according to the Fair. 5.4% ABV, 20 IBU.
  • Chocolate Coffee Porter – Made with Gutter Punk Coffee and chocolate, this will be available at the State Fair Grandstand throughout the State Fair.
  • St. Pat’s Green Ale – Also a State Fair exclusive, this is described as a “green, light-bodied ale with slight fruit and floral aromas along with a creamy but crisp finish.” 4.6% ABV, 22 IBU.

The Freehouse

  • LimeLight – Only available at the State Fair, this lime-forward beer has a slight agave sweetness as well as a touch of salt. 5.4% ABV.

Fulton Brewing

  • Frontier Summer IPA – Available at Frontier Bar at the Minnesota State Fair, this is a full-bodied IPA described as hoppy, but also “light and approachable.” 5.5% ABV, 35 IBU.

Great Lakes Brewing Company

  • 30th Anniversary Imperial Oyster Stout

Hayes’ Public House

  • An Tríonóide – A New England-style IPA, released on August 15.

Hoops Brewing

  • #30 Reserve Pale Ale – “A special version of our #15 Pale Ale, we have added Mosaic and Lemondrop hops for a nice, citrus explosion,” the brewery says. 8.1% ABV, 95 IBU.

Inbound BrewCo

  • Brut IPA – In short, the brewery describes this effervescent new IPA as “a delicate balance between hoppy IPA and light Champagne.” 5.9 % ABV, 59 IBU.

Indeed Brewing Company

  • Paradeiss American Pale Ale – “A low-bitterness, easy-drinking, warm-weather wheat beer, Paradeiss is generously dry-hopped with three varieties of fruit-forward, American hops,” head brewer Josh Bischoff says. 5.1% ABV, 20 IBU.

Junkyard Brewing

  • Cascade Apollo Experimental IPA – A West Coast-style IPA. 7.2% AVB, 75 IBU.
  • Experimental IPA with Cascade and Apollo – A West Coast-style IPA. 7.2% ABV.
  • Mosaic Experimental IPA – 7.5% ABV, 64 IBU.
  • Simcoe SIPA – This is a double IPA with lemon peel. 8.2% ABV, 100+ IBU.
  • Vertical Citra Experimental IPA – A West Coast-style IPA. 7.1% ABV, 56 IBU.

Karst Brewing

  • Big Spring IPA – A New England-style IPA. 8.1% ABV, 59 IBU.

Lake Monster Brewing Co.

  • Brewzo – This State Fair exclusive is inspired by Greek ouzo. It’s a Pilsner brewed with licorice and served with a sugar-spiced rim. 5.4% ABV, 40 IBU.

Lakes & Legends Brewing Company

  • St. Apple Malted Cider – A malted cider available only at the State Fair, brewed with apple juice and apple pie spice for a distinct Minnesota dessert flavor profile. 4.9% ABV.

Lift Bridge Brewing Company

  • Key Lime Pie Beer – The makers of the Mini Donut Beer have another unique State Fair exclusive this year: a pie-inspired offering served in a glass rimmed with organic coconut palm sugar. 4.5% ABV, 13 IBU.

Little Thistle Brewing Co.

Rochester’s newest brewery, owned by the wife-and-husband team of Dawn and Steve Finney opens today, August 24. The announced lineup will include:

  • Beautiful Day IPA
  • Berliner Weisse with Passionfruit and Mango
  • Brave Woman Scottish Ale
  • New Scotland NEIPA
  • The Doug Lager

LTD Brewing

  • Chocolate Mudpie – “Slightly sweeter than a dry stout, but less so than milk stout, our creamy, toasty oatmeal stout is almost like eating an oatmeal cookie,” the brewery says. 4.9% ABV, 32 IBU.

Lupulin Brewing Company

  • Barrel Aged Whiskey Nuts – The imperial brown ale returns August 24 after a year-and-a-half hiatus. It will available on tap and sold in 750ml bottles. 11% ABV.

Mankato Brewery

  • Cake’d Up Celebration Beer – The State Fair-only beer has is a “cake-flavored, lightly hopped ale featuring a distinct vanilla aroma with a sweet cake-like finish,” according to the Fair. 5.0% ABV, 20 IBU.

Portage Brewing Company

  • Coconut Affogato – An imperial stout made with coffee, coconut, cacao nibs, vanilla, and lactose. The stout is described as having the the flavor profile of “espresso, splashed over a bed of vanilla ice cream, shredded coconut, and chocolate syrup.” 8% ABV, 33 IBU.

Pryes Brewing

  • Mango Infusion Flight – This Sunday, Pryes will serve a special flight board of mango infusions, featuring Miraculum IPA, Summer IPA, and Bohemian Blonde Ale.

Roets Jordan Brewery Co.

  • Blackberry Kettle Sour – 4.5% ABV, 8 IBU
  • Roets IPA (Grapefruit) – A hazy IPA made with grapefruit and Amarillo hops. 7% ABV, 60 IBU.
  • Roets Rye – A rye pale ale. 6.2% ABV, 40 IBU.
  • Smoky – A dark, smoked wheated ale. 4.8% ABV, 14 IBU.

Rustech Brewing

  • Rusty Patch – A honey wheat ale. 5.8% ABV, 30 IBU.

Schell’s Brewery

  • It Takes 2 to Tango and 3 to Mango – The Starkeller’s State Fair debut is a mixed culture Berliner weisse aged on mangoes. According to the Fair, it “has a bright, fruity flavor of ripe mangoes on top of a refreshingly tart and dry lemony acidity.” 5.5% ABV, 5 IBU.

Shakopee Brewhall

  • ChAZM – A juicy, hazy IPA made with Citra, Azacca, Zythos, and Mosaic hops. 7.7% ABV, 46 IBU.
  • Foundry – A red ale. 4.9% ABV, 39 IBU.

Sociable Cider Werks

  • Slipstream Black Currant Apple – “Freshly pressed Midwestern apples fermented to a light bubbly effervescence then sweetened with floral and black currant berries for a flavor that is clean, crisp, and fruity,” the brewery says of its State Fair exclusive cider. 5.9% ABV.

Summit Brewing Company

  • Helles Ya, You Betcha! – Available only at the State Fair, this fan-named helles lager is described as offering “flavors of tangerine and fresh blood orange for a clean mouthfeel and a hint of sourdough crust.” 4.2% ABV.

Surly Brewing Company

  • Dots & Loops – A Beer Hall-only release that features tropical and citrus hop notes with a hint of tartness underneath, which brightens the hop flavor, the brewery says.
  • Gaelic Dark & Stormy Ale – A State Fair-only golden ale brewed with citrus, lime, and ginger. 5.0% ABV, 15 IBU.
  • Juicy LuLuLucy IPA – “This hazy, NE-style IPA provides a fresh, juicy orange and grapefruit-like hop flavor,” according to the Fair. 6.7% ABV, 40 IBU.
  • Kitsch – A new lager that is dry-hopped with Citra, Amarillo, and Centennial. It is sold in the Hop Pack sampler (which also contains Furious, Xtra-Citra, and Sleek oatmeal IPA), currently on liquor store shelves.
  • The Kloser IPA – Glen Perkins collaborated with Surly once again to make this hop-heavy, citrus-forward IPA based on one of his homebrew recipes being served at the fair. 5.0% ABV, 64 IBU.
  • Porter – “Surly’s first porter is dark and slightly sweet with rich, roasted malt flavor and a pop of citrusy American hops,” the brewery says. Available exclusively at the Beer Hall.
  • Sleek – This oatmeal IPA will be included in the upcoming Hop Pack sampler box, out the week of August 20. “Purring with aromatics from hefty Simcoe dry-hopping, Sleek’s grapefruit, pine, and melon flavors race across the tongue,” the brewery says.

Tin Whiskers Brewing Company

  • Dill Pickle Ale – “Tin Whiskers is keeping things funky at Giggles’ Campfire Grill with a new iteration of Dill Pickle Ale, formerly brewed by Barley John’s. This year’s pickle-inspired sipper is a crisp Kolsch-style beer aged on fresh cucumbers and dill sourced from the St. Paul Farmers’ Market,” the Fair says.

Venn Brewing Company

  • British Pale Ale – “Floral, toasty, bitter,” the brewery says. “A classic British-style pale ale featuring Crisp Chevallier Pale malt and Styrian Golding and Cascade hops.” 5.0% ABV, 40 IBU.

Wabasha Brewing Company

  • Brown Eyed Women – A brown ale on tap at the brewery.

Wild Mind Artisan Ales

  • Blueberry Maple Pancake Sour Ale – This sour ale debuted last weekend after aging in oak barrels on blueberries and maple syrup.

Wooden Hill Brewing Company

  • Raspberry Pi – A new fruited pale ale brewed with raspberries, strawberries, vanilla, plus Mosaic and Centennial hops. 7% ABV.


Seasonal or rotating returns

Lakes & Legends Brewing Company's Barn Cat Farmhouse IPA // Photo via Lakes & Legends Brewing Company Twitter

Lakes & Legends Brewing Company’s Barn Cat Farmhouse IPA // Photo via Lakes & Legends Brewing Company Twitter


  • Oktoberfest – This seasonal Märzen festbier is available in six-packs of 12-ounce cans.

Bad Habit Brewing Co.

  • Fruit Stripe – The latest in Bad Habits kettle sour series is this pink guava infused Berliner Weisse. “Brewed with pilsner malt and malted white wheat, it’s kettle soured on a house culture strain of Lactobacillus and finished with a nice blend of assorted fruits,” the brewery says.

Bad Weather Brewing Company

  • Bavarian Hefeweizen

Badger Hill Brewing Company

  • Blood Orange Traitor – This blood orange take on Traitor IPA is now available at the brewery.

Bald Man Brew Co.

On Saturday, August 25, Bald Man celebrates two years in business with the following special releases:

  • Batch 100: Imperial Tupelo Honey – Imperial honey brown ale
  • Killer Queen – Imperial IPA
  • Rocktoberfest – Oktoberfest

Barrel Theory Beer Company

  • Draco – The dragon fruit and passion fruit Berliner weisse is back on tap now. 4% ABV.

Bent Paddle Brewing Co.

  • Roof Rack – Bent Paddle’s Vienna lager returned last week.

Big Wood Brewery

  • Chocolate Chip Cookie Beer – This dessert in a glass is on tap again at the State Fair this year.

Brau Brothers Brewing Co.

  • Buffalo Ridge Pale Lager – 6% ABV, 33 IBU

Castle Danger Brewing

  • Grapefruit Ode IPA – Returning to the Minnesota State Fair this year.

Dangerous Man Brewing Company

  • Tangerine Milkshake IPA – Back on tap at the brewery, as of this Wednesday.

Dual Citizen Brewing Company

  • Dewey Kettle Sour – The second batch of this recipe by Dual Citizen returns to their taplines today. “We changed up the fruit on this batch and used salted watermelon instead of tart cherry,” the brewery says. “Aroma is rich and fruity with notes of watermelon. Mouthfeel is bright, dry, and crisp. Flavor is dominated by sourness before unfolding into sweet, salted watermelon.” 4% ABV, 5 IBU.

Excelsior Brewing Company

  • Maple Bacon Brown – Back on tap at the Fair this year.
  • S’Mores Beer –Back on tap at the Fair this year.

Fargo Brewing Company

  • Oktober-Fest Bier – “Classic Märzen-style Oktoberfest lager pours a deep amber color with a thick, long-lasting white head. The aroma is filled with rich, toasty malt character and subtle hop spiciness,” the brewery says of this fall seasonal, out today.

Grand Rounds Brew Pub

  • Hop Bollocks – This session IPA is on tap now, according to the brewpub’s website. 5% ABV, 60 IBU.
  • Mayhem – A maibock. 7% ABV, 25 IBU.
  • Steam Powered – A golden coffee ale. 6.2% ABV, 9 IBU.

Hoops Brewing

  • #627 Strawberry Shortcake – With a malty base reminiscent of pie crust, this beer is infused with 800 pounds of strawberries for a distinctly dessert flavor. 6% ABV, 9 IBU.

Hoppy Girl Brewing

  • Pop My Cherry – This cherry sour ale returned to the lineup last weekend in limited supply. 3.9% ABV.

Junkyard Brewing

  • BA King Size Imperial Stout – On tap last weekend at the brewery, this barrel-aged imperial stout is also available in Crowlers. 13.0% ABV, 83 IBU.

Lakes & Legends Brewing Company

  • Barncat – This farmhouse IPA is now sold in cans. The brewery describes it as balanced and tropical.

Left Hand Brewing Company

  • Oktoberfest – A Märzen-style lager. 6.6% ABV.
  • Saison au Genièvre – The fall seasonal release in the Les Quatres Saisons series, this beer uses juniper berries to add a mild tartness to the dry farmhouse ale. Available through October.

Lift Bridge Brewing Company

  • Mini Donut Beer – Back on tap at the State Fair this year, sugar-rimmed glass and all.

Northbound Smokehouse & Brewpub

  • Doc Roggen – A black rye IPA. 6.9% ABV, 70 IBU.
  • Wild Rice Amber Ale – Back on tap now. 5.9%, 38 IBU.

Roets Jordan Brewery

  • Roets Beer – A light German ale. 4.8% ABV, 20 IBU.
  • The Bearded Lad – A Scottish export ale. 5.8% ABV, 22 IBU.
  • The Belgian – A Belgian saison with rye. 5.5% ABV, 28 IBU.

Rustech Brewing

  • Dark CIN – 5.4% ABV, 40 IBU
  • Five Furlough

Sociable Cider Werks

  • Candy Apple Hard Cider – Returning to the State Fair this year.
  • Raspberry Hard Cider – Returning to the State Fair this year.

Sweetland Orchard

  • Minnesota Mule Cider – Returning to the State Fair this year.

u4ic Brewing, Incorporated

  • Oktoberfest – Back on tap for the 2018 holiday season.

Urban Growler Brewing Company

  • Big Boot Rye IPA – Back on tap and included in Urban Growler’s anniversary party earlier this week.

Voyageur Brewing Company

  • Voyage North Hazy IPA – “This juicy, New England-inspired IPA is made with Mosaic, Citra, and El Dorado hops,” the brewery says. Defined by tropical, citrus, and melon flavors. On tap now. 7.3% ABV, 35 IBU.

Beers just announced

Junkyard Brewing Company's Buffalo Trace Barrel Aged King Size // Photo via Junkyard Brewing Company Facebook

Junkyard Brewing Company’s Buffalo Trace Barrel Aged King Size // Photo via Junkyard Brewing Company Facebook

12welve Eyes Brewing

  • TBD – Details are yet to be announced, but Venn and 12welve Eyes have a collaboration up their sleeves. Check out the Venn listing below for a hint.

Bad Weather Brewing Company

  • Gose

Bald Man Brewing

  • Spirit In The Sky Strawberry Rhubarb Ale – This pink beer releases on Tuesday, September 11, to celebrate the Eagan brewery’s taproom expansion.

Bang Brewing

  • This – Bang’s annual wet-hop beer will be brewed using fresh hops from Michigan.

Bell’s Brewery

  • Bell’s Octoberfest Beer – A Märzen lager packaged in 12-ounce bottles and also available on draft.
  • Larry’s Latest Flamingo Fruit Fight – This new tart ale will debut in cans, bottles, and draft next January. It’s a tart ale with passion fruit and lime zest.
  • Special Double Cream Stout – On the bottling line now and coming soon, the brewery promises.

Deschutes Brewery

  • Schwarzbier – Deschutes is celebrating their 30th anniversary this year and one of the special releases will be a collaboration with Bell’s production manager Tim Gossack, who was Deschutes’ head brewer from 1990–1996. This recipe by Gossack (after he left Deschutes), is a 6.4% ABV dark lager.

Excelsior Brewing Company

  • Docktoberfest Märzen Lager – Releasing August 27 in the taproom.


  • Cascade Wet Hop Ale – Brewed with hand-picked hops grown in Iowa.

Founders Brewing Co.

  • Trigo – The sixth installment in the brewery’s Artist Series, this new beer is a hoppy wheat lager noted by the brewery for “big aromatics, rounded flavor and a clean finish.” It will be available in six-packs late next month.

Junkyard Brewing 

  • Belma DDH NEIPA – Coming soon, the brewery says.
  • Calypso Summer Session – On tap next week, the brewery says.
  • Ekuanot Experimental NEIPA – Coming soon.
  • Grapefruit Shake-O-Matic – Coming soon.
  • Ice Auger Lager – On tap late next week, the brewery says.
  • Mango Shake-O-Matic – Coming soon.
  • Mud Supreme V2 – Coming soon.
  • Super Slurp Cherry Limeade – Coming soon, according to a recent tweet.
  • Vince Vega NEDIPA – Coming soon.
  • Wild Rice Vienna Lager – On tap this week, the brewery has announced.

Lupulin Brewing Company

  • TBD – An upcoming IPA brewed with Hornindal Kveik yeast in collaboration with Junkyard of Moorhead.

Schell’s Brewery

  • Binary Storm – “A mixed culture Berliner weisse aged in one of our cypress wood tanks for about a year, then aged on Boysenberries for an additional four months,” Schell’s brewer Jace Marti says of this upcoming release.
  • Black Prism – A future Noble Star release, this is a black Berliner weisse aged in cypress tanks, then additionally aged on black currants.
  • Snowstorm – The 2018-2019 edition, Speciale Belge, is a winter ale with a moderate malt bill, biscuit and subtle fruity notes, Schell’s says. 6.0% ABV.

Surly Brewing Company

  • 3DH – New in the BC Small Batch series, this triple dry-hopped IPA will be available the week of September 3 in limited supply.
  • Horchata Inspired Cynic – On tap at the Beer Hall for Infusion Tuesday, August 28.
  • Naked and Afraid – A tropical session IPA with notes of tropical mango, pineapple, and tangerine what will be available only at the Beer Hall, starting next Wednesday, August 29.
  • Double Rosé Infusion – On tap at the beer hall for Infusion Tuesday, September 4.

Plus, Darkness Day has a new feel this year, taking place in Somerset, Wisconsin, on Saturday, September 29. The beer lineup will include:

  • Bourbon Barrel-Aged Cherry Vanilla Darkness
  • Darkness
  • Fernet Barrel-Aged Darkness
  • Rum Barrel-Aged Coconut Darkness

Tilion Brewing Company

  • Gravitas – An upcoming Belgian strong ale.

Venn Brewing Company

  • New England IPA – A New England-style IPA was brewed this week at Venn, in collaboration with St. Paul’s 12welve Eyes Brewing.
  • Saphir Pale Lager – “A hybrid between a Pilsner-style lager and a Munich-style Helles featuring the recently developed Saphir hop from Germany,” says Venn. 5.5% ABV, 30 IBU.

Wild Mind Artisan Ales

  • Vikings Hammer – Wild Mind’s next beer for distribution will be available “just in time for football season.” The beer is a golden sour ale aged in Vikre Iron Range whiskey barrels, then refermented on blueberries. “This dark purple sour ale has rich notes of berries, funk, and light vanilla. Look for an announcement next week for the restaurants that will get kegs,” the brewery says.

Curious about recent releases? Peruse our Mash-Up archives. Did we miss a beer release or announcement? Email us at [email protected] to let us know about new beers from this week and beyond. Or let us know what new beer you’re enjoying by using #TheMashUp on Twitter and Instagram.